Anatomy and Physiology 102
Dr. Sterling Roulette
Office: Room 1264
Course Meeting Times: Room 1265 T/TH 7:30am-11:50am
Office hours: M,T,W,TH 7:00 to 7:30 and 12:00 to 12:30, T 12:30 to 2:00
Textbooks: Principles of Anatomy and Physiology 12th ed., By Tortora and Derrickson; John Wiley, Publisher, Older editions work fine
Anatomy and Physiology 102 Lab Manual, By Sterling Roulette and Cheri Hodge
Other items required:
1) Lab apron or old oversized shirt
2) "Scantron" computer answer cards #100 (please have ready for the first test)
3) Colored pencil set
4) Latex gloves
Catalog Description: Anatomy and Physiology 102: Anatomy and Physiology 102 is a continuation of the series and covers the nervous, endocrine, cardiovascular, lymphatic, respiratory, and urinary systems, as well as fluid and electrolyte homeostasis.
1. To discuss a basic understanding and working knowledge of the human body.
2. To outline the concepts of homeostasis and interdependence of all body systems.
3. To provide an introduction to the disruption of homeostasis (pathology) as contrasted with normal processes, particularly as they apply to the allied health occupations.
Student learning outcomes: As part of the requirements of accreditation Student Learning Outcomes (SLO) have been developed that represent examples of capstone outcomes that each course of Anatomy and Physiology 102 needs to become skilled at and evaluated in a standardized format. The three SLOs for this class are listed below. You will have a test on these as either a quiz during the semester or as part of the comprehensive examination.
1. SLO: Outline the events of the resting and action potential. Include the causes of depolarization and a labeled graph of the events of the action potential.
Resting Potential: 4 pts.
1. The nerve cell at rest is minus 70 millivolts
2. The negative millivolts is due to three aspects:
a. The active pump of three sodium ions out of the cell and two potassium ions into the cells
b. There are negative ions inside the cells represented by amino acids, phosphates, etc.
c. The membrane is leaky to the positive potassium ions.
Causes for the action potential include: 5 pts.
1. change in extracellular ions
2. change in electrical charge
3. neurotransmitters such as acetylcholine
4. pressure such as heart baroreceptors
5. mechanoceptors as with touch receptors
Events of the action potential: 7 pts.
1. Threshold stimulus: minimum stimuli that acts as an “all or nothing response”.
2. Sodium channels open and sodium floods into the cells.
3. Cytoplasm if the neuron become more positive
4. Cell depolarizes to positive 30 millivolts and at that time the potassium channel is open.
5. Potassium flood out of the cell causing repolarization.
6. Potassium channel is slow to close causing hyperpolarization to minus 90 millivolts.
7. Potassium channel closes to bring about the re-establishment of the resting potential.
Graph of the action potential: 5 pts.
Include a graph that labels the vertical scale in millivolts, the horizontal scale as time in milliseconds, and a numbering of the individual stages of the action potential.
2. Circulatory System SLO
15 points: Describe the flow of blood through the heart starting and ending in the left ventricle. Include the systemic and pulmonary circulations and the chambers, valves and vessels involved.
5 points: Describe the changes that occur in the heart at the time of birth and the structures before and after this change. What are the consequences of failure of these changes to occur at birth?
10 points: Describe the structures and the sequence of electrical conduction in the heart. What are the inherent rhyhthms of the SA node, AV node and the ventricles?
5 points: Relate the waves of the EKG (ECG) to the events of the cardiac cycle.
Key Terms for Grading Rubric
Blood flow 15 points start and end with same structure:
Systemic circulation and Capillaries of the body
Superior and inferior vena cava
Pulmonary semilunar valve
Bicuspid (Mitral) valve
Electrical conduction 10 points
Sinoatrial node (SA) depolarizes(pacemaker potential)
Atrial depolarization and systole
Atrioventricular border (fibrous skeleton insulator)
Atrioventricular node (AV) depolarizes
Inherent rhythm (40-50/min)
Bundle of His depolarizes in the Interventricular septum
Right and left bundle branches
Purkinje fibers apex of heart depolarize
EKG and Cardiac Cycle 5 points
P wave - SA node depolarizes and signal spreads through atria / atria begin depolarization
PQ interval - SA node to AV node / atrial depolarization complete, atrial systole / blood
flows through AV valves into ventricles
QRS complex - AV node fires / ventricles depolarize / atrial depolarization and diastole / isovolumetric contraction of ventricles
ST segment - ventricular depolarization complete, ventricular systole and ejection / plateau of myocardial action potential
T wave - ventricular repolarization / early diastole / isovolumetric relaxation of ventricles
T to P interval - ventricular repolarization complete / late diastole / ventricles begin filling
3. SLO: Immune system
Describe the activation and actions of the cell mediated and humoral branches of immunity.
First, begin with a discussion of MHC proteins and then the types of receptors found on lymphocytes.
Next describe the types and functions of APCs.
Then describe presentation, double match and co stimulation for T helper cells and the results of that activation.
Next describe the presentation, double match and co stimulation for the Cytotoxic T cells. What are the results of that activation and what are the five lethal hit actions?
Lastly, describe the activation of the B cell including double match and co stimulation. What are the results of that activation?
10 pts. MHC I and MHC II proteins location and discussion
Describe Helper T and Killer T cell lymphocyte CD receptors
10 pts. Describe 3 APC types
Describe how an APC engulfs, processes and presents antigen
10 pts. Activation of Helper T Cell and outcomes
Include double match and costimulation
Include active and memory clones
Describe what active clones will do
10 pts. Activation of Killer (Cytotoxic) T Cell and five lethal hit outcomes.
Include double match and costimulation
Include active and memory clones
Describe what active clones will do
10 pts. Activation of B Cells and outcomes.
Include double match and costimulation
Include active plasma clones and memory clones
Describe what active plasma cells will do
Terminology to include:
MHC I and MHC II discussion
Macrophage action of engulfing microbe, digesting microbe
Helper T “double match”:
CD4 – MHC II
TCR – Ag
Interleukin I – costimulation
T Helper cells
--- form Active T Helper cell clones
---secrete Interleukin II
Killer T (cytotoxic) cells “double match”:
Viral infected cell
CD8 - MHC I
TCR – Ag on cell wall
Costimulation – Interleukin II
Clones of Active and Memory Cytotoxic T cells
Killer T cell cytotoxic chemicals (list and describe each):
Tumor necrosis factor
Macrophage Inhibiting Factor
Macrophage Activating Factor
Prerequisites: The first semester (101) must be taken as a prerequisite to
the second semester (102)
Recommended preparation: High school or college biology and/or chemistry are strongly recommended.
Format: Classes meet two days per week. One and one half hours of theory (lecture) followed by three hours of laboratory.
A. Be prepared for a short quiz every day that will typically cover the previous day of lecture material. These will start at the beginning or end of class so it will be important to be in class on time and remain for the entire period.
B. During the semester there will be at least three midterm examinations.
C. A comprehensive final examination will be given on the last day of class and is a requirement to receive a passing grade.
D. Please read over the textbook and lab assignments BEFORE coming to class. Several laboratory sessions will involve the study and use of cadavers and preserved specimens. Students not wishing to work with these specimens for ethical or health concerns should contact the instructor so an alternative assignment can be determined.
Attendance: If you cannot make it to class, it is your responsibility to check which assignments are due when returning back to class. Exchange telephone numbers and use the buddy system. There is no need to call or e-mail for an excused absence. All absences hurt your chances of being successful in this fast paced class and the quizzes cannot typically be made up. If you need to contact me because of extended absence please call me on the phone as I am rather “old school” in this regard.
Drop Policy: It is your responsibility to drop the class by filling out the appropriate form and giving it to Admissions & Records. Do not assume that I will drop you from class if you stop attending. It is the instructor's responsibility to drop students that are a “no show”. A no show is someone who never attends a single class session.
Make-ups and late work: Typically there will be no make up for the quizzes. That refers to any assignment less than 15 pts. General tests carry a 50% reduction in points whereas the four exams will carry a 20% reduction in points. If for some reason the student does not make-up a test by the end of seven days, then the make-up will be reduced by another 10%. Alternate tests are given instead of the one taken during the scheduled test time. In most instances these will be more difficult than the original test as the student has had time to study and talk to the other students about the previous test. No tests can be made up after three weeks of the initial test date and no make-ups are given during the last two weeks of class. Late lab work also carries a 50% reduction in points. It is important to put "late" in clear lettering on the front page of the assignment. Not including this is considered cheating and will result in disciplinary action according to the policies outlined later in this document.
Extra Credit: Extra credit may be given on exam questions. Extra credit is limited to less than 5% of the total points possible in class and available to all students on an equal basis.
Laboratory credit: The laboratory credit, being two-fifths of the total semester credits, is computed as follows:
A. Points are assigned to laboratory activities such as dissection, knowledge of the models, etc.
B. Points are assigned for practical and written examinations.
C. Most laboratory work cannot be "made-up". The exception to this occurs with practicals that carry large point values.
D. The lab book is worth 50 points of credit. The lab book is due on the last day of regular classes and immediately after taking the laboratory practical. The lab book will not be returned to the student.
E. There will be a laboratory final on the last day of regular classes. Students may use only their lab books for this examination. No additional material may be added to the lab the lab book during the lab final. This includes the addition of any digital photographs.
Web Material: During the semester there may be extra material on the web site. These will be topical points of interest and additional web sites to check out. The web will be an excellent opportunity to gather extra credit.
Grading Policy: All laboratory points have the same weight as lecture points so that students can easily calculate their current point standing. It is the responsibility of the student to keep track of their own point standing. All the points possible in class are totaled and then divided into the student's current points to obtain a percentage. The point percentage for a particular grade is as follows:
"A" Grade-----------90-100% "D" Grade----------60-69%
"B" Grade-----------80-89% "F" Grade----------less than 60%
Further breakdown of grade assignments:
A grade of "F" is given to a student who obtains less than 60% of the points possible in class and/or is found cheating in class. (See Policy)
A grade of "D" is given to those students who satisfactorily obtained at least 60% of all the points possible in class.
A grade of "C" is given to the student who can assimilate the lecture and lab material and is able to obtain 70% of all the points possible in class.
A grade of "B" is given to the student, who in addition to fulfilling 80% of the previous objectives, is also able to display that he or she can satisfactorily answer questions beyond those discussed in lecture material. Other sources of information include the textbook and web reading recommendations.
A grade of "A" is given to the student who fulfills the previous objectives and is also able to integrate information to solve novel situations thereby clearly demonstrating the concept of critical thinking.
Cheating policy: Cheating is any activity that gives an unfair advantage to a particular student. These activities include but are not limited to: using notes or books on examinations of any kind, looking at or copying someone else's paper, changing graded papers for credit, not putting “late” on papers requiring that designation, or falsifying documents. If someone is caught cheating, he or she will receive an automatic zero for whatever work was being completed and the Vice President of Students and the Vice President of Instruction will be notified. If a student is caught cheating a second time the student will receive an "F" in the class. Please check the college catalog for the current policy regarding due process and student discipline.Flagrant cheating is grounds for an automatic grade of "F" on the first offense. An example of flagrant cheating is stealing the instructor's key.
Americans with Disabilities Act: Mt. San Jacinto College abides by the Americans with
Disabilities Act and Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 that prohibits federal and state agencies or programs from discriminating against qualified individuals with disabilities. If you have a documented disability that limits a major life activity which may have some impact on your work in this class and for which you may require accommodations, please see me or Disabled Students Programs and Services. If there is any accommodation that you require prior to being the in program please let me know and I will do my best to accommodate.
Safety: Safety is the most important issue in the laboratory. Always work in a safe manner. Many labs deal with sharp objects, flammable material, and toxic or infectious substances. If you are ever in doubt about a procedure, ask, never assume. Note the proper disposal of wastes and the location and use of fire extinguishers. At the beginning of the semester every student is given 25 points for safety. These points are lost for eating or drinking in class, breaking sterile procedures, not wearing goggles, not cleaning the lab before leaving class, etc.
Sterling’s Hot Buttons:
1. Eating in class. If you do have food, keep it stored in your backpack. There is a refrigerator in the class for your personal use. The only stipulation is that it can not be used to store food past the class period. Every day the refrigerator is cleaned out so that other course sections may have room for their food. You will lose points if you have food or food containers on the floor or under the cabinet.
2. Please put the microscope away clean and with the arm facing outwards. Note on the inside of the cabinet for how the scope should be stored if you are in doubt.
3. Cell phones and pagers that ring, buzz or make noise during lecture times. If you are caught with your cell phone going off you will be asked to sing a song of your choice or have me answer the phone for you.
4. Students who ask me if it is okay to leave early. If you want to leave class early you do not need my permission. This is a fundamental difference between high school and college. But of course the common point of the question is not asking for permission but will they miss anything of value by leaving. Of course leaving early reduces your chances of getting everything out the class including any points that may come up late in a particular session and I will not commit the entire class to serve a student’s request. It is unfair to the instructor and the class overall.
5. Smoking anywhere on campus especially near doors, halls or the Anatomy and Physiology building.
Privacy: Students have a right to privacy. Anyone not wanting their papers to be returned in the out box can get their papers returned to them in person during the office hours directly following the class.
Final comment: I wish all of you the best of learning. To learn how your own body works can be very interesting. For those of you that have taken the time to read this syllabus you will be rewarded. The first quiz will contain questions regarding its content. Any material that is handed out should be read and considered "testable material".
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